Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Anne Moody s Coming Of Age - 1189 Words

Anne Moody is the author of Coming of Age in Mississippi which was originally published in 1968. Anne Moody is a famous African American Mississippi author who was born in Wilkinson County, Mississippi on September 15, 1940. She was the eldest of nine children born to Fred and Elnire Moody. While growing up in Mississippi, Moody attended a segregated school where she was an outstanding scholar. Moody cleaned houses in order to keep food on the table and clothes on her family members’ backs. In 1961, Moody earned scholarship in basketball to Natchez Junior College where she was involved in sit-ins, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to fight for civil rights for blacks in the south. Upon her completion at Natchez Junior College, she went to Tougaloo College where she received her Bachelor of Science degree in 1964. Moody continued her civil rights activities North at Cornell University where she ser ved as a civil rights project coordinator from 1964 to 1965. Moody joined all of these civil rights groups partially because of the lynching of Emmitt Till. Moody’s literature includes Coming of Age in Mississippi, Mr. Death: Four Stories and Famous People Stories: 4th Grade Reading Level. Moody’s books have helped people understand what life was like in the segregated South before and during the civil rights movement. Moody recently passed away on February 5, 2015 at the age of 74. Coming of Age inShow MoreRelatedAnne Moody s Coming Of Age897 Words   |  4 PagesIn the story, Anne Moody, Coming of Age in Mississippi, Anne known as Essie Mae found out the meaning of racism at a young age and also see or heard what whites do to black people if they did not like what they was doing. She did not know that whites and blacks had their own place to sit and eat or why whites went to one school and blacks went to another. She just assumes that whites went to the school that was close to their neighborhood, but Essie Mae experience her first meaning of segregationRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age Essay1826 Words   |  8 PagesHIST278 Essay One - Joseph Malthus, 42863655 Anne Moody’s Coming of Age in Mississippi is a story of a black girl growing up in the American Deep South during the development of the Civil Rights Movement. Moody notices the racism that envelops her life and attempts to understand why it exists, despite the absence of reasonable grounding. Suffocating under the restrictions and fear caused by systematic racism, she ultimately decides to become an activist, and takes an active role in demanding equalityRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age881 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dial, 1968. Print.† Anne Moody was a determined, educated, and an inspiring civil rights activist who was born in Gloster, Mississippi. Born on September 15th, 1940-passed away February 5th, 2015 Anne Moody dedicated her life to making the United States a better place for not only African American’s, but pleaded for equality amongst all races as well. Awarded best book of the year in 1969 by the National Library Association, Anne Moody writesRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age Essay1088 Words   |  5 PagesAnne Moody, a black activist in the twentieth century, wrote an autobiography, Coming of Age in Mississippi, which illustrated how life was like growing up poor and black in the rural south. She wrote in details of her life living in the racist society and what it meant to be black in the South twentieth century. Readers were able to understand her personal thoughts as well as her memories of the fight growing up in the south and her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement. Moody grew up with aRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age During Mississippi And Non Violent Vs. Violent Protest For Civil Rights1640 Words   |  7 PagesSamuel Conner Professor M. Du Bois HIST1025-002 October 30, 2015 Dreamers Instead of Leaders: Anne Moody’s Coming of Age in Mississippi and Non-Violent vs. Violent Protest for Civil Rights The American Civil Rights Movement in the late 1950s and 1960s generated massive international following and controversy, which made the movement one of the most important in U.S. history. The movement’s legacy can still be felt today, with the positive aspects, such as voting rights to African Americans and wideRead MoreComing Of Age Throughout Mississippi By Anne Moody1362 Words   |  6 Pages Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay Fredric Stanley HIST 3881 Professor James Conway 7 November 2015 â€Æ' Though we Americans, in all of our efforts, feel as if the day of racism is coming to an end, I feel it is merely evolving into a much more subtle approach. Seeing life through the words of Anne Moody in her book entitled, Coming of Age in Mississippi, shows that racism, even back then, is treated with remedies versus a cure. After the many anti-discrimination legislations passed as well asRead More Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody Essay examples1005 Words   |  5 PagesComing of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The autobiography Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody is the story of her life as a poor black girl growing into adulthood. Moody chose to start at the beginning - when she was four-years-old, the child of poor sharecroppers working for a white farmer. She overcomes obstacles such as discrimination and hunger as she struggles to survive childhood in one of the most racially discriminated states in America. In telling the story of her lifeRead MoreComing Of Age Throughout Mississippi By Anne Moody1388 Words   |  6 PagesIn the autobiography â€Å"Coming of age in Mississippi† by Anne Moody known as Essie Mae in the book she writes in great detail the struggles her and other people of her color had to go through in order to gain their rights. From such a young age she saw the differences in the way people of color were treated in comparison to whites, things that no one should go through much less a kid. From the beginning you see that Essie Mae i s such a brilliant kid and all the trials she goes through and the knowledgeRead More Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay example639 Words   |  3 Pages The first main event that I believe led to Anne Moody becoming an activist for Civil Rights was when she was younger, her cousin George Lee was babysitting and he burned down the house in a fit of rage and when Daddy gets home he blames it on Essie Mae (Anne Moody). This foreshadows all of life’s injustices that will be thrown her way. The next time was when she made friends with white neighbors and they decided to go to the movies, Anne couldn’t sit with her friends, she had to sit in the balconyRead More Anne Moodys Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay1127 Words   |  5 PagesAnne Moodys Coming of Age in Mississippi Coming of Age in Mississippi is the amazing story of Anne Moodys unbreakable spirit and character throughout the first twenty-three years of her life. Time and time again she speaks of unthinkable odds and conditions and how she manages to keep excelling in her aspirations, yet she ends the book with a tone of hesitation, fear, and skepticism. While she continually fought the tide of society and her elders, suddenly in the end she is speaking as

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fast Food Nation Discussion Questions Free Essays

He is shocked that the greatest power house in t e world has this disease in it’s system and it is right under our noses. 2. Believe that the primary goal Closer had in writing this book is exposing a America the fries, burgers, pizzas, subs, that we consume isn’t what we think t is. We will write a custom essay sample on Fast Food Nation Discussion Questions or any similar topic only for you Order Now The chicken, cows, and pigs aren’t raised on a farm, slaughtered humanely, thro ugly inspected, packaged, and appears on our plates with a nice wrapper around it . He wanted us to be aware that this industry is doing everything in their power to exploit innocent workers, helpless animals, and the system with power and politics. Ink Closer is hoping for America to open their eyes and realize what is really g Long on around them. He wants to see any change, not drastic changes but slowly chaw Eng things. He might expect us to spread this information to anyone that hasn’t re ad this book. To spread the info he gave to us to anyone that isn’t aware of what is go ins on in their local fast food restaurants. 3. He kind of depicts an American culture that seems to be oblivious of what is g Ongoing on and just wants to consume, consume, and consume. He kind of writes about transition of a culture where everything was made from scratch and hard word k paid off. No short cuts were taken. Nothing was ‘fast?’ just quality food. (pigs 18, 1 7, 46, 50) He described American Farmers as a dying species, businessmen as money hung children as exploited adolescents, general working public as being manipulate d, and the eating public as an unaware audience. 4. The tone of Chlorate’s text is subtle yet stern. I would classify this book as outstretching, dark, heartrending and informative. I honestly do not b live that anywhere in the book there was a hopefulness or optimism. It just seem to get darker and darker the more you read on. He asserts his opinion in sections like and Potatoes, The Most Dangerous Job, Your Trusted friends. Yes there are SE actions that are less/ or more biased. (Kenny pig 186, Sharp Knives pig 1 72, A Broken Link pig 146) 5. The effect of these stories is to have us feel connected in a way with them. Like e we know them personally, and understand and feel what they been through, and they are included to give us a generalization of how long these industries have been d Long these things. How to cite Fast Food Nation Discussion Questions, Essays

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Is Marijuana A Solution For The Opioid Epidemic Example For Students

Is Marijuana A Solution For The Opioid Epidemic? An Opioid Epidemic in the United States The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently published an analysis that showed drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental deaths in the United States – surpassing even that of automobile accidents (â€Å"Opioid Addiction†). A majority of these deaths are related to prescription opiates and heroin use. Opiates are drugs commonly prescribed as pain relievers, including oxycodone, codeine, morphine, and fentanyl. The class of drugs also includes the illicit drug, heroin (â€Å"Opioid Addiction†). Prescription opioids are currently involved in â€Å"more overdose deaths than any other drug† with 20,101 related deaths in 2015 – four times the number in 1999 (â€Å"Overdose Death Rates†). Heroin overdoses have also risen fourfold in the past 16 years, with 12,990 deaths in 2015 (â€Å"Opioid Addiction†). Many are calling this dramatic increase in opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States an â€Å"Opioid Epidemic .† This epidemic has three main indicators: increases in sales and prescriptions of opiates, high rates of opioid-related mortality, and a surge in admissions to treatment centers for opiate addictions. Driving this epidemic is the surge in the prescription of opiates, which nearly tripled from 76 million prescriptions filled 1991 to 259 million prescriptions filled in 2011 – corresponding to the dramatic increase in opioid-related overdose deaths (Nolan). Many of these painkillers are even being prescribed for conditions they have been proven ineffective for, including chronic pain. This increase in sales and use for prescription opiates is problematic because opioids are associated with a high risk of overdose death and addiction. Many studies also point to a strong causal relationship between prescription opioids and heroin use. According to the American Society of Addiction Medicine, a survey of new heroin users found that four in five started out abusing prescription opioids (â€Å"Opioid Addiction†). Heroin is a much deadlier and addictive drug, with 23% of users developing an opiate addiction (â€Å"Opioid Addiction†). The overdose potential for both drugs is high because patients’ tolerance to the toxic effect of opioids builds slower than tolerance to its euphoric effects (â€Å"Opiates (Narcotics)†). Many suggest that marijuana could be a cure for this rise in problematic opiate use because studies show that marijuana is less addictive than opioids and have a near-zero potential for overdosing (Hall and Pacula). This paper will analyze whether marijuana could act as an alternative treatment for conditions usually treated by opioids and how medical marijuana legalization impacts problematic use, influence the supply of opiates driving the problem, and effects heroin and opiate use rates that characterize the opioid epidemic. Marijuana as Treatment Substitute In â€Å"Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,† the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) reviewed 79 relevant trials that examined the impact of marijuana on a broad range of conditions that marijuana is commonly prescribed for, such as chronic pain, nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, spasticity from multiple sclerosis, and sleeping disorders (Whiting et al.). Although they also found that cannabinoids were associated with moderate improvements for most of the conditions analyzed, a majority of the studies had high risks of bias or the improvements were not statistically significant (Whiting et al.). The JAMA analysis did find â€Å"moderate-quality evidence† that supports a â€Å"30% or greater improvement in pain with a cannabinoid compared with a placebo† (Whiting et al.). However, this beneficial effect was accompanied by the increased risk of short-term adverse effects, including dizziness, nausea, and fatig ue from the cannabinoids themselves. Despite the adverse effects, this potential of cannabinoids to alleviate chronic pain is promising. There is much controversy over opiates’ efficacy in treating non-cancer chronic pain (â€Å"Opioids for Chronic Pain†). In some patients, due to a combination of tolerance – the adjustment of the body to dosage over time – and opioid-induced hyperalgesia – an increasing sensitivity to pain, opioids taken over an extended period of time may actually increase the amount of pain experienced (â€Å"Opiates for Chronic Pain†). If marijuana can treat chronic pain better than opiates can over an extended period of time, then marijuana can substitute for opiates. Not only could reduce opiate-related side effects, but it could also reduce the prescription dosage needed. Consequently, fewer opioids would need to be prescribed, reducing the supply available for use and misuse. Marijuana as a treatment substitute could lower risk for opiate-related addicti on and potentially overdoses. .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 , .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .postImageUrl , .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 , .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:hover , .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:visited , .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:active { border:0!important; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:active , .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5 .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u717aa2dd7795128099e55c794fb9fac5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Prevention For Opioid Drug AbuseAbrams and his colleagues studied the effect of marijuana-opiate interaction in patients with chronic pain. They administered vaporized cannabis to 21 patients with various conditions who were receiving either oxycodone or morphine in stable doses (Abrams et al.). After five days of administering the vapor, the researchers evaluated the patients’ pain level and found an average pain reduction of 27.2% when cannabis was added to the opiate. This significant reduction in pain suggests marijuana enhances the pain-relieving effect of opioids. Since fewer opiates are needed to achieve the same effect, mixing opioids with marijuana could potentially allow for lower opioid doses and an accompanying decrease in opioid-related side effects such as nausea and sedation (Abrams et al.). This suggests another treatment for chronic pain – a combination of both cannabis and opioids to minimize the amount of exposure to each drug. Not only would this lower the risk of opiate dependence, but also minimize the risk of long-term harms associated with marijuana use that may still be unknown.

Friday, March 27, 2020

The lottery winner Essay Example For Students

The lottery winner Essay The book starts out in Manhattan, New York in modern times. The book mostly takes place in New York city but throughout the book they also travel to London, England, cypress point spa, and several other places. The book ends back in Manhattan, New York. Alvirah Meehan is a former maid that is near her sixties and has quit her job after her and her husband struck it rich in the winning of the lottery. Alvirah started taking interest in helping people with murders and other problems that she ran across while traveling across the world. After she had won the lottery the New York Globe news paper had asked her to write about all of her different adventures. We will write a custom essay on The lottery winner specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Willy Meehan is around his sixties, he has blue eyes with white hair. Willy is a former plumber who quit his job after wining the lottery with his wife Alvirah. Willy enjoys traveling with Alvirah to all the different places. He is very supportive and help full to Alvirah in her interest of helping others with there crimes. He also enjoys helping the poor or just those people that cant afford to hire a plumber so he dose the job for free. Brian who is somewhere around his twenties, he is an up and coming famous play writer. Brian is the nephew of Willy. Brian is first introduced in the first story called The body in the closet.He was staying at the apartment of Willy and Alvirah were a body was found in there closet at there return from there trip to England. He becomes the main suspespect in the murder because he was the last be in the apartment. This was not a good thing for Brian because his career was just taking off with all the great plays he was writing. Brian becomes very lucky with the help of Alvirah as they prove his innocence. Brian then was able to go back on with is writings of the plays. Cynthia Lathem was found guilty for the murder of her father in the second story.It all happened when she was in her junior year of the Rhode Island School of Design when her step father Stuart Richards was found shot to death in the study of his mansion. Cynthia spent 12 years in prison for the murder. She spent the time thinking and asking herself who could have set me up. Cynthia knew that she was innocent and thats when she meet Alvirah who was the answer to all her problems because she was about to help prove her innocence. Cynthia proved her innocence and then went on to marry and enjoy her life. Rhonda Alvirez the winner of six million dollars. She was latter cheated out of the money by her husband when he swapped the ticket with a ticket bought by the lady he had thought he fell in love with. A lady that he had been having an affair with. His intentions where to run off with her, but things got out of hand and he was killed. Rhonda then became the main suspect in the murder only to make things worse in her life. But once again Alvirah was to the rescue she meet her and Alvirah began to take over by going through her crime solving technics. With the help of Alvirah Rhonda was found not guilty and received the six million dollars that was so rightfully hers. The book starts out with Alvirah and willy returning from their trip from England just after they struck it rich in the lottery. Alvirah takes interest in solving crimes and murders so at each trip she ends up in getting herself into something or another dealing with crime. She helps many people throughout the book where it ends back in New York where she solves her last crime. .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f , .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .postImageUrl , .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f , .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:hover , .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:visited , .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:active { border:0!important; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:active , .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u84a982eb358ff5f91c03714847ff250f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Application Stuff: EssayThe theme of the book was that Alvirah in how she won the lottery and found herself to be very good at crime solving as she travels the world helping people as well as in her home town Manhattan, New York. She wanted to be apart of everything no matter how much harm it would bring to herself. There was at least one time in the book where she almost had her own life taken by another person while trying to help solve a crime. I think that Alvirah learns in this book that she could have been a lot better detective than just a cleaning lady. The book was very interesting. It was always hard to find a place to quit reading. The book was very suspenseful always leaving you to guess what could possible happen next. I was always on the edge of my chair waiting and wondering what could possibly happen next. I would recommend the book to anyone that enjoys reading suspenseful books. Bibliography:Authors Biography:Mary was born and raised in New York. She is of Irish descent who considers her Irish heritage an important influence on her writing. Marys father died when she was just Ten years old leaving her mom to raise her and her and her two brothers. After she graduated she went on to secretarial school so that she could get a job to help her mother with family fiances. She went on to marry a neighbor who she had known since she was 16 years old. Then later her husband died leaving her to raise there five children. Shortly after she became more known before she became the writer she is today.Who we refer to as the AMERICAS QUEEN OF SUSPENSE. Authors Biography:Mary was born and raised in New York. She is of Irish descent who considers her Irish heritage an important influence on her writing. Marys father died when she was just Ten years old leaving her mom to raise her and her and her two brothers. After she graduated she went on to secretarial school so that sh e could get a job to help her mother with family fiances. She went on to marry a neighbor who she had known since she was 16 years old. Then later her husband died leaving her to raise there five children. Shortly after she became more known before she became the writer she is today.Who we refer to as the AMERICAS QUEEN OF SUSPENSE.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The Role of the High Court in Australias system of government

The Role of the High Court in Australias system of government Introduction The Australian High Court is the highest independent judicial arm of the government, which is also a significant feature of Australia’s liberal-democratic governance (Patapan, 2010, p. 167; Banks, 2007, p. 16).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of the High Court in Australia’s system of government specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main functions of this court include interpreting and applying the Australian constitution, solving cases regarding the federal system of governance such as instances where the constitutional validity of the laws is challenged, and officiating appeal cases (Singleton et al., 2009, p.64). However, in the recent past, there have been arguments over the court’s role in the shifting balance of power, which tends to favor the Commonwealth. As a result, there is the need to look into the factors underlying this shift in the balance of power and the rele vant constitutional interpretations since the initial constitution provided for the preservation of the balance of power between the commonwealth and the states (Singleton et al., 2009, p.64). To this end, the essay will look at the role of the high court in interpreting the wording of the Australian constitution by considering the Engineers case (Amalgamated Society of Engineers Vs Adelaide Steamship Co. Ltd) of 1920. In addition, this essay aims at illustrating the High Court’s role as a political institution of governance through considering the court’s input in supporting the legislation regarding income tax, which was enacted by the Commonwealth in 1942. Overall, the two cases will serve as examples of the roles played by the high court in interpreting the Australian constitution, and acting as a political institution in the Australian system of governance.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The role of the High Court in interpreting the laws Considering that all the constitutional rights of appeal bestowed upon the Privy Council have been abolished in the recent past, it is certain that the Australian constitution allows the High Court to interpret the laws (Singleton et al., 2009, p.65). This implies that all the constitutional cases including appeals originating from different jurisdictions, which bear a greater political significance to the federal government, are referred to the High Court. Here, it is worth noting that most constitutional cases are based on disagreements involving the balance of power between the federal and the state governments particularly in matters dealing with trade, banking, and arbitrations (Singleton et al., 2009, p. 65; Wiltshire, 2008, p. 31). Thus, the decisions made by the High Court regarding these cases can have far-reaching implications since they form the framework for decisions made by other cou rts several years later. Accordingly, since its inception, the High court’s rulings have been centered on controlling the federal powers, giving wider interpretations of the federal powers, sustaining the role played by the Commonwealth in governance without bias, and as can be noted from the recent developments, the High Court is engaged in providing additional interpretations of the powers held by the federal government (Ward Stewart, 2010, p. 105). However, of particular interest in this respect is the court’s role in the Engineers case whereby it was decided that the federal adjudication powers as provided in section 51(xxxv) of the constitution could also apply in other parts of the country including Western Australia (Singleton et al., 2009, p. 66; Ward Stewart, 2010, p. 115). Additionally, regarding the Engineers case, the High Court is said to have given the Commonwealth the full control over worker’s wages at the national level.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of the High Court in Australia’s system of government specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In so doing, the court can be regarded to as playing the role of reshaping the constitutional interpretations put forward in 1901, and thus, providing a framework upon which the disagreements arising between the Commonwealth and the States can be solved. Here, the court played the role of a constitutional adjudicator considering that despite enlarging the legislative powers of the Commonwealth on one hand, it also confined these powers on the other hand. Further, it is to be noted that the majority of the court was of the idea that the interpretation of the constitution should be based on its original wording, and not on implied prohibitions or implied immunity, which were two major doctrines used by the courts in the early 1900s (Ward Stewart, 2010, p. 119). Therefore, by giving the constitution its nor mal word meaning, the High Court extended the powers of the Commonwealth to cover some aspects, which were initially prohibited by interpreting the laws on the basis of the drafters’ wishful meanings of the constitutional wording. However, it should be noted that this broader interpretation of the laws was not meant to give the federal government an upper hand, but it served to check almost all aspects of governance, and to maintain the balance of power between the federal and state governments (Wiltshire, 2008, p. 35). The role of the High Court as a political institution If we had to examine what the drafters of the Australian constitution had in mind, it is certain that they wanted to develop the US-system of the judiciary, which performs various functions such as the federal judicial review (Banks, 2007, p. 18). Here, the role played by the High Court entails examining the laws made in both the Commonwealth and the State legislatures in order to ensure that they fall with in the provisions of the constitution.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accordingly, considering that disputes could arise between the federal and state governments such as the one discussed above, there is the paramount need to have a mediator who should be impartial and unconcerned with issues raised by either party in order for justice to be served. This role could not fit any institution apart from the Australian High Court. As a result, the High Court can be regarded to as an arbiter of federalism or an advocate of the Australian constitution (Patapan, 2010, p.168). It then follows that the decisions made by the High Court will have extensive political implications. For instance, during the war-time in 1942, the federal government came up with a legislation meant to control the overall income tax, a move which was challenged in court by the state governments (Singleton et al., 2009, p. 169). In this constitutional conflict, the High Court ruled in favor of the federal government, and thus gave the Commonwealth the authority to implement uniform tax ation at the national level. This implied that the state governments could not impose their own taxes outside those implemented by the Commonwealth. Besides, it is to be noted that the court also gave a broader meaning of section 90, which entails the Excise, and thus limiting the taxation power of the Commonwealth in some aspects. These decisions of the court point to the fact that it plays a political role in that the High Court has the power to look into the actions of both the legislature and the executive in order to determine whether those actions fall within the exact meaning of the constitution. Furthermore, the case shows instances where the High Court can annul some actions of the executive, which may not be based on proper interpretation of the constitution. Moreover, this case is one of many instances where the High Court came in to help solve constitutional conflicts arising from wrong interpretation of the constitution or obscure laws (Ward Stewart, 2010, p. 105). Her e, it is also important to note that the High Court was acting purely within its constitutional mandate, which dictates that such conflicts be treated as legal questions irrespective of the impending political consequences. Overall, the court’s decisions show that the High Court judges understand their role in the political sphere and judicial review (Patapan, 2010, p. 169). References List Banks, R 2007, Hot topics: legal issues in plain language, Legal Information Access Centre, Australia. Patapan, H 2010, High court, (Insert the publisher and the Town for the book you scanned for me). Singleton et al. 2009, High court, (Insert the publisher and the Town for the book that you scanned for me). Ward, T Stewart, R 2010, Politics one (4th ed), Palgrave MacMillan, Australia. Wiltshire, K 2008, ‘Australian federalism: the business perspective’, The University of  New South Wales Law Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 31-45.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Cigarette companies targeting people Research Paper

Cigarette companies targeting people - Research Paper Example Cigarette manufacturers are more interested in safeguarding their business interests rather than the interests of the people or the country. It should be noted that government is getting huge money as taxes given by the cigarette manufacturers and therefore it is impossible for the government to completely ban this activity. Cigarette manufacturers know this fact very well and they are finding new ways to spread smoking. This paper analyses how cigarette companies are targeting their customers. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Cigarette manufacturers explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking (Jiang & Ling, 2011, p.1942). The nexus between liquor manufacturers and cigarette companies is well documented by many studies. It should be noted that many people have the habit of smoking at the time of drinking alcohol. In fact smoking, while drinking, is an essential activity to get the maximum pleasure out of drinking. Tobacco manufacturers know this fact very well and they are offering cigarettes for every purchase of liquor bottles. Thus both liquor manufacturers and cigarette manufacturers are reaping profits. It should be noted that the combined effect of alcohol and cigarette smoke create addiction so that the smokers or the